In Western culture, the dominant conception of family revolves around a heterosexual couple with biological offspring. This idea places alternatives family forms outside the public norm. As a consequence, research indicates, disparaging views of adoptive families exist, along with doubts concerning the strength of their family bonds.

The most recent adoption attitudes survey completed by the Evan Donaldson Institute provides further evidence of this stigma. Nearly one-third of the surveyed population believed adoptees are less-well adjusted, more prone to medical issues, and predisposed to drug and alcohol problems. Additionally, 40-45% thought adoptees were more likely to have behavior problems and trouble at school. In contrast, the same study indicated adoptive parents were viewed favorably, with nearly 90% describing them as, “lucky, advantaged, and unselfish.”

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The majority of people state that their primary source of information about adoption comes from friends and family and the news media. Nevertheless, most people report the media provides them a favorable view of adoption; 72% indicated receiving positive impressions. There is, however, still substantial criticism of the media's adoption coverage. Some adoption blogs, for example, criticized a couple for using outdated orphanage imagery as did advocacy non-profit The Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute.

The stigmas associated with adoption are amplified for children in foster care. Negative perceptions result in the belief that such children are so troubled it would be impossible to adopt them and create “normal” families. A 2010 report from the Pew Commission on Children in Foster Care has shown that the number of children waiting in foster care doubled since the 1980s and now remains steady at about a half-million a year."

The care of a child is a continuous process which begins with the pre-natal stage and lingers through the period of post-natal toddlers, pre-school, school age, and adolscence to youth. The process is closely connected with such a concept as a socialisation of an adoptee. As the adoptive parents confront the challenges of full social recognition of their adopted child, than adopted child on their own is entrapped to the pression issue surrounding the acceptance of the comparative strangers as their new parents, and the adjustment to their way of phisical, phsycological and emotional up-bringing and care.

In general, adoption practices have changed significantly over the course of 20th century, with each new movement, labeled in some way, as a reform. All the previous records to improve adoption associated with opening records encouraging family preservation. These ideas arose from a suggastione that the secracy inherent in modern adoption may influence the process of forming an identity, create confusion regarding genealogy, and provide little in the way of medical history.