What is domestic and international infant adoption?

Domestic infant adoption is a form of adoption in which a woman facing an unplanned pregnancy decides she is not ready or able to parent that child. She then finds adoptive parents, either through an adoption professional or her own networking, and an adoptional process then begins involving attorneys, social workers, and more, to help complete both party’s adoption goals. Upon the birth of a child, the adoptive family receives physical custody of the child, and the birth parents’ rights are legally terminated and assumed by the adoptive family in a finalization hearing several months later. In case of international adoption family can find a coutry which offers legal process to foreigners. Adoptive parents may find it themselves or contact adoption agency.
How do an adoptive family and a child find one another?

One of the top reasons expecting mothers and adoptive families contact adoption agency is to help them find that perfect adoption situation. When either a prospective birth mother or adoptive family begins the adoption process with an agency, an adoption specialist will work with them to understand the type of adoption situation they are looking for. For birth mothers, the perfect situation may include the type of family they want to place their child with based on location, race, family size and family traditions, and the type of contact they wish to share with the family and child once the adoption is completed. For adoptive families, they may also decide the situations they are and are not comfortable with, and their adoption specialist will only present their profile to birth mothers who match their preferences. These preferences may include the race and gender of the baby, the medical background of the birth mother, the budget they have available to spend, and the level of openness they are willing to share in their adoption with the birth mother. While adoptive families may select the exact adoption situation they are looking for, this may limit the number of adoption situations they are open to, theoretically increasing their average wait time. Once an expecting mother determines she is ready to take that next step and pursue adoption with an agency, she will be presented a number of adoptive family profiles and video profiles, whose preferences match hers as well, until she finds the best family for her and her child. Finally, the two parties will likely engage in a mediated conference call with an adoption specialist so they may both get to know one another and ensure they are ready to follow the same adoption plan together.
Why is an adoption agency necessary in modern day adoption?

At its core, adoption is simply the legal transfer of a child's rights to an adoptive parent or parents; however, in reality, adoption requires much, much more than just legal work. Adoption agencies oversees every detail of the adoption process, including finding the right adoption opportunity for the birth mother; advertising families to help them find the right birth mother; screening birth parents and adoptive families to ensure they are legally and emotionally prepared for adoption; providing 24/7 support to the parties throughout the adoption process; receiving picture and letter updates of the adopted child to confidentially forward to his or her birth mother; overseeing the entire legal process to ensure every step is conducted in accordance with federal adoption laws and complies with an advanced agency; and more. These services are only a fraction of everything an adoption agency provides to its clients. While an adoption attorney is the only professional legally required to be involved in an adoption, in many circumstances and adoption agency is required for each party to effectively reach their adoption goals.
What is open adoption?

Open adoptionis a form of adoption in which the biological and adoptive families have access to varying degrees of each other's personal information and have an option of contact. In Open Adoption, the adoptive parents hold all the rights as the legal parents, yet the individuals of the biological and adoptive families may exercise the option to open the contact in varying forms: from just sending mail and/or photos, to face-to-face visits between birth and adoptive families. There are many benefits to open adoption. The birthparents feel at peace knowing they have created the adoption. Ongoing contact through the years enables birthparents to get closure and confirm that they made the best decision for their child. The adoptive parents feel chosen and entitled to parent their child. In addition, because they know the birthparents, they do not fear an unknown figure. The child benefits most of all because they know where they came from and where they belong. They also have access to information about their birthparents including cultural and medical history. For both birth parents and adoptive parents, the open adoption process can remove the mystery from the adoption process, and can permit a greater degree of control in the decision-making process. The open adoption process also allows adoptive parents to better answer their children's questions about who their birthparents were, and why they were adopted. Open adoptions can also help the child come to terms with being adopted, because the child's concerns can be addressed directly by everyone who was involved in the adoption process. There can be downsides to open adoption. Many adoptive parents find the degree of openness to be a threat, fearing that the birthparents will intrude upon their lives after the adoption is over, or even seek to have the child returned to them. Adoptive parent may worry that the child will be confused over who his or her "real" parents are.
What is semi-open adoption?

A semi-open adoption occurs when the potential birth mother or birth families experience non-identifying interaction with the adoptive families. In most cases, interaction is facilitated by a third party which is usually the adoption agency or attorney. In this type of adoption, the identity of all parties is usually kept from one another. In most cases, interaction is limited to letters or cards. However, in some cases there may be non-identifying e-mails or visits hosted by an adoption professional. Semi-open adoptions include the exchange of non-identifiable information and contact mediated through agency. Non-Identifiable Information: May include first names, state or region, temporary email address and more. Mediated Contact: May include conference calls mediated by a social worker, pictures and letters forwarded from the agency to the birth parents, and interaction at the hospital.
What is confidentional (closed) adoption?

Closed adoptions remain common in international adoptions and were the norm in adoptions in the past, when families usually used an agency to adopt a newborn. The prospective adoptive family would put their name on a list, and wait for the social worker to make a match. The adoptive parents didn't know where the child came from, or who his or her birthparents were. The child might not have even known that he or she came into the family through adoption. Even if the adoptive parents and birthparents know of each other at the time of the adoption, they do not stay in touch after the adoption takes place. The child often will not know who his or her birthparents are, especially before turning 18. When adoptions are closed, the files are usually physically sealed. An adoption of an older child who already knows his or her biological parent(s) cannot be made closed or secret. This formerly was the most traditional and popular type of adoption.
Does a single parent can adopt?

As a single woman or man, you should find a local agency that will conduct a "home study": an assessment of your character, community, childhood, living space, financial capacity to support a child, and intensity of your desire to adopt. If the agency cannot provide a child you want to adopt, you can ask to have your study sent to other agencies that have "sources" of adoptable children elsewhere in your own country or in foreign countries. Not every agency will accept a single applicant, and some do so only grudgingly; look elsewhere. Many agencies, or their sources, are not enthusiastic about single male applicants, and men who want to adopt should take the initiative to persuade their agencies that they will make good, sound, and loving parents. The second most valuable step is to find and join an adoptive parent support group. Most of the members have adopted already, and can provide good tips on local agencies and other sources, as well as encouragement and emotional support throughout the process. An agency wants to place with mature couples or single people in good jobs offering financial stability, and with people who really, really, want a child. Fortunately we fill the bill-single applicants are usually in their mid or upper thirties, well-educated and in good, stable, middle-income jobs. Agencies are not eager to work with applicants who might have difficulty parenting a child "not their own" or who are trying to persuade a reluctant spouse.
What is the role of a social worker?

Almost everyone who participates in an adoption will have contact with a social worker. Social workers play an important role in all adoptions. As most people know, a home study is the first step in an adoption for potential adoptive parents. Most, but not all, countries require that a home study should be completed by a social worker who has a corresponding qualification. Most home studies are completed by social workers employed by an adoption agency. Adoption attorneys usually refer their clients to adoption agencies to complete their home study. Social workers also play an important role in the matching process at the governmental organisations. They facilitate the match meeting where discussion about everything from the hospital plan to the post adoption contact happen. Attorney adoptions may or may not involve a social worker in the matching process. In both agency and attorney adoptive placements, once a baby is in an adoptive home a social worker does the post placement supervision that is required before finalization. Social workers also take the relinquishments from the birth parents, which permanently terminate their rights. Perhaps the most important role that social workers play at the adoption process is providing counseling to both birth and adoptive families. This means that we do not push adoption. We help the potential birthparent to make the choice that is best for them. If they decide to make an adoption plan a social worker provides them with counseling throughout the process. Adoption is often emotionally difficult for adoptive parents as well. The social workers provide both education and counseling for adoptive parents. This support is often helpful as families work through grief relating to infertility or sometime families need help with the anxiety that the adoption process can provoke.
How long does it take to adopt a child?

The time frame, like the cost, varies with the agency and the type of child being adopted. The wait is typically between two and seven years for a healthy infant. If the prospective family has a completed home study, children with special needs can often be adopted quickly, within several months.
What is a home study?

A home study is an educational process designed to help the agency get to know you and teach you about adoption and its impact on children and families. You will attend a series of meetings with a social worker that will provide more in-depth information. Social workers want to be sure that a person or couple can provide a safe and nurturing environment for a new child in their home. The homestudy process varies from agency to agency. Some conduct individual and joint interviews with a husband and wife; others conduct group homestudies with several families at one time. Most ask applicants have to provide written information about themselves and their life experiences.
How long does the home study take to complete?

On average the home study process takes 2 to 3 months to complete. You can help the process by completing all required paperwork, fingerprinting, etc. on a timely basis to ensure your home study is completed as quickly as possible. We will provide you with all of the needed documentation for you to complete and assist you with any questions to help you in your home study process. Although the home study process is a source of anxiety for some prospective adoptive parents, there should be no reason to worry about not being "approved." We make our home study process as straight forward as possible to help you become a family as soon as possible.
What are the most frequent emotional difficulties?

There are many autobiographical books available, written by those who were adopted and writing about their experiences that provide lots of information about the issues experienced by these people. It is very common for those who were adopted to feel rejected and abandoned by their birth parents. This is accompanied by feelings of grief and loss. There is no set time or age when these feeling surface but, sooner or later, they do. Feelings of loss and rejection are often accompanied by a damaged sense of self esteem. There is an understandable tendency to think that "something must be wrong with me for my birth parents to have given me away." It must be understood that these feelings and thoughts are unrelated to the amount of love and support received from the adoptive parents and family. Guilt accompanies loss and grief because the adopted individual believes that they are being disloyal to the people who adopted, loved and raised them. They do not want to hurt or betray their adoptive mother or father. According to the psychologist Eric Erikson, adolescence involves a search for self identity. While this search is difficult for most teenagers, it presents special problems for adoptee. Assuming they never met their natural parents and family and have no idea of their genetic background, they are left with a gigantic gap in their search to answer the age old question, "Who am I." Of course, the more information available to young people, the less of a gap there is in the information they need to formulate a real sense of themselves. Missing genetic information is important for obvious medical reasons. It is important for everyone to have knowledge of the medical history because it can provide clues to genetic diseases. If more had been known about the birth parents, it might have been possible to predict his childhood problems at home and at school. Many adults who were adopted struggle with fears that they will be disloyal to their adoptive parents if they search for their natural parents.